Glossary

A (5) | B (2) | C (8) | D (4) | E (1) | F (2) | G (2) | H (2) | I (3) | M (1) | N (2) | P (2) | R (4) | S (3) | T (3) | U (2) | W (1)

ICANN

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, a non-profit organisation that is responsible worldwide for managing domain names.

NTIA

The division of the US Department of Trade that handles the domain name system.

IANA

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority is responsible for the global coordination of the DNS Root, IP addressing, and other internet protocol resources.

CENTR

Council of European National Top-level domain Registries. It is a not-for-profit organisation dedicated to supporting the interest of country code TLD managers. 

U-label

A U-label is an IDN domain name with special characters, such as belgië.be

A-label

An A-label is the ASCII version of a U-label; in other words: an A-label uses ASCII characters only (A-Z, 0-9 and/or ‘-’) to display the domain name. This conversion is carried out automatically by the DNS Belgium registration system.

phishing

Tricksters lure you to a fake website that is a copy of a real one. They then get you to log in with your user name, password and credit card number. Once you’ve done that, the fraudster has your details.

transfer code

Code you need to move your domain name to another registrar and/or to transfer it to another registrant. This code consists of 5 groups with 3 numbers. 

WHOIS

Look-up which gives information about the registrant of the domain name, his registrar, the name server and also some information about the domain status. 

registrar

Is the entity that registers a domain name for a company, organization or person. Next to the “resale” of web addresses registrars can also offer hosting services, web design... 

server

A computer program or hardware device that provides services to other computer programs or users.

authoritative servers

Name servers that respond directly and effectively to DNS queries with an IP address, without appealing saved (or cached) information.

cache

Is a place where data is stored temporarily. 

registry

Organisation that handles the registration of domain names. A registry maintains the data base containing information about one (or more) domain name extension(s) as .be, .com, .org, .vlaanderen, etc.

registrant

Domain owner, person who holds a domain name.

gTLD

Acronym for generic Top Level Domains. Designates domain extensions with a generic character. So, .com was intended for commercial use and .gov for governmental use. 

ccTLD

Acronym for country code Top Level Domain. Designates geographical extensions based on countries like .be (Belgium), .nl (Netherlands), .fr (France), etc. Each country has it own ccTLD.  

cybersquatting

Harmful practice where a cybersquatter registers domain names that are identical to well known and registered brand names or trade names, merely with the aim of harming the brand name holder or the trader or to sell the domain name at an inflated price.

SPAM

Collective term used for unwanted e-mail messages.

malware

Collective name for harmful or damaging software. Root kits and backdoors come under the heading of malware, as do viruses, Trojan horses, worms and spyware.

acquisition fraud

Type of fraud involving the selling of advertisements, without the intention to publish them. Here: phone calls urging you to register numerous variants in other extensions of your existing domain name, at exorbitant cost.

ccNSO

Country code Names Supporting Organisation; one of ICANN’s 3 supporting organisations composed of the regsitries for the country codes (ccTLDs). Develops propositions to the Board of ICANN tailored to the needs of the ccTLDs.

GNSO

Generic Names Supporting Organisation;  one of ICANN’s 3 supporting organisations composed of six constituencies; advises on topics related to the generic top-level domains.

ASO

Address Supporting Organisation; one of ICANN’s 3 supporting organisations; advises the ICANN Board of Directors on policy issues relating to the allocation and management of IP addresses.

Name server

server translating a domain name into an IP address. If you insert a domain name (ex. dnsbelgium.be) in your browser for the first time, your computer will ask the name server, linked to the webpage you search, to which IP address he has to navigate.

FCCU

the Federal Computer Crime Unit. Part of the federal police department which deals with cybercrimes.

HTML

Hypertext Markup Language, is a language used for creating web pages.

Browser

program that makes it possible to access and read web pages. Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox and Safari are some well-known browsers.

Front-end

what is visible on a website, the uppers layer or the “front” of the website with whom the user has direct contact.  Some examples are: the web design, the images, the typo, etc.

Back-end

what is not visible for the end user and which interacts indirectly or directly with the front-end.

Pharming

a malicious practice where a fraudster diverts traffic destined for a particular server unnoticed to another server. Even if you use the correct URL, you still end up on the frauds' website.

Typosquatting

similar practice as cybersquatting. The squatter registers a domain name that resembles to an existing brand name or trade name but may create confusion to the end user.

Spoofing

the stealing of a computer’s identity. By making some technical adjustments, a computer is able to intercept all traffic from and to another computer.

CMS

refers to Content Management System and refers to a web application that makes it possible for a user to easily publish data and documents on the internet. Through this system you can manage the content of your website.

Cookie

small text file that is stored in the browser of your computer or mobile device (smartphone, tablet, etc.) by the server of a website you’re visiting.

IP- adres

IP refers to Internet Protocol. Computers, laptops, tablets, smartphones, servers, websites,… all receive an IP address.

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